In the context of the phenomenal world, taken as hierarchical, evolutionary gradations of the objectification the transcendent, unconditioned ground of being, degrees of freedom evolve from one level of objectification to another through the ceaseless operation of the goalless striving of their source. Each higher level transcends and includes the lower, and is in constant strife with it in its attempted domination of it. In controlling the lower, the higher level attains greater degrees of freedom in achieving configurations of matter (cause and effect in the field of time and space) not possible given the laws of the lower level expressed in the nature of its manifestations.


  • Arthur Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Idea
  • Robert Pirsig, Lila
  • Daniel Dennett, Freedom Evolves
  • Valentin Turchin, The Phenomenon of Science